After twenty years of military presence and five months of wandering the Biden administration, the last American soldiers have left Kabul
Promised by the new president upon his arrival at the White House, the withdrawal of the United States from Afghanistan was concluded on Monday, August 30, in an atmosphere of debacle and excitement.
The photo is blurry, taken at night, with greenish tones. It distinguishes Major General Chris Donahue, commander of the 82 th Airborne Division, setting foot aboard a cargo plane C-17 end of the runway at the international airport Hamid-Karzai in Kabul. Chris Donahue makes history. He is the last American soldier to leave Afghan soil.
The image of the interior of the American C-17 filled with passengers sitting on the ground has traveled the world. The snapshot was taken Sunday, August 15 in Kabul, which had just fallen into the hands of the Taliban.
According to the specialized site Defense One , this C-17 Globemaster III of the US Air Force embarked some 640 Afghans in the direction of Qatar. According to this specialized site; “ This is one of the largest numbers of people ever on board the C-17 ”. The C-17 is a military transport aircraft developed by the manufacturer Boeing and operated by the United States and its allies.
« The crew made the decision to leave »
A US defense official at Defense One
Designed to carry up to 134 soldiers, the plane – whose call sign was Reach 871 – was not supposed to carry so many people, but when boarding, hundreds of Afghans cleared to evacuate gathered in precipitated in the apparatus. Rather than releasing some of the passengers, » the crew made the decision to leave, » a US defense official told Defense One. » About 640 Afghan civilians disembarked from the plane when it arrived at its destination, » he added, and not 800, as the first estimates of the pilots indicated on Sunday evening, which can be heard in this audio .
« The unusually high number of passengers on board this aircraft […] was the result of a dynamic security environment that required swift decisions from the crew, » said Karen Roxberry, spokesperson for US Central , in a statement. Command, the US command center managing operations in the region. « Ultimately, this allowed these passengers to be safely evacuated from the country. »
A precedent in 2013 in the Philippines
This procedure is however provided and known under the name of “ Floor loading ”, or “ loading on the ground ”, according to the user manual of the device. It consists of removing the seats to seat the passengers on the ground, which are held in place by means of loading straps which run from one wall of the aircraft to the other. According to the official quoted by Defense One, this operation was already carried out in 2013, in the Philippines after Typhoon Haiyan . A C-17 then carried 670 passengers.
To date, the US military has evacuated more than 3,200 people from Afghanistan, including US personnel, according to a White House official. In addition to these 3,200 people, nearly 2,000 Afghan refugees were evacuated to the United States. The United States plans to evacuate more than 30,000 people via an airlift between Kabul and its bases in Kuwait and Qatar.
Deployed from the Great War onwards and then widely used during the Second World War, submarines occupy a special place in conflicts. From small submersibles used for infiltration missions near enemy coasts, armies have grown into real nuclear-powered behemoths. Today, nuclear missile submarines (SSBNs) are primarily used for deterrence missions.
These giants of the seas, often longer than a football field, can shoot down missiles equipped with several nuclear warheads, each of which has a power equivalent to seven times that of Hiroshima.
The SSBNs in circulation are spread among a handful of nations: France, China, United States, India, Russia and United Kingdom. Important clarification: the two rivals of the Cold War share nearly three-quarters of the world SSBN fleet. They are now 40 in circulation.
Here are the ten longest submarines on the planet:
10. Le Triomphant Class (France) – 138 meters
Le Terrible submarine is the most recent of the four Le Triomphant class SSBNs in France. It was commissioned in September 2010.
9. Vanguard Class (UK) – 149 meters
The United Kingdom has four SSBNs, making up a class called Vanguard. The most recent, HMS Vengeance , entered service in November 1999. Each British SSBN carries 40 nuclear warheads.
8. Dreadnought Class (UK) – 153 meters
The Deadnought class, officially announced in 2016, is expected to take over from Vanguard, whose submarines date from the 1990s. The first of four new submersibles is due to enter service in 2028. The HMS Dreadnought will weigh 17,000 tonnes and be equipped of « new innovative lighting which will allow the crew to simulate night and day », explains BAE Systems, the company in charge of the work.
7.K-44 Ryazan (Russia) – 155 meters
The K-44 Ryazan, Delta III class, was commissioned by Russia in January 1982. Weighing just over 13,000 tons underwater, it can accommodate 130 crew members.
6. Class Delta IV (Russia) – 167 meters
Commissioned between 1984 and 1990, the seven Delta IV class submarines each weigh just over 18,000 tonnes. They can evolve between 320 and 400 meters deep. The submersibles carry RSM-54 Makeyev missiles, which have a maximum range of 8,300 kilometers.
5. Class Boreï (Russia) – 170 meters
With four submersibles, the Boreï class represents the second Russian SSBN fleet, after the Delta class. These submarines were the first to be built by Russia after the fall of the Soviet Union. Launched between 2008 and 2017, they are split between the Barents Sea and the Pacific Ocean. They reach 24,000 tonnes when diving and can go up to 480 meters deep.
4. Ohio Class (United States) – 170 meters
The Ohio class was, when launched in 1981, the largest submarines ever built by the United States. 14 submersibles now make up this class; the latest, the USS Louisiana , was commissioned in September 1997. Each of them carries 24 Trident nuclear-warhead sea-to-ground missiles, with a range of 7,400 kilometers.
3. Columbia Class (United States) – 171 meters
The United States is planning to replace its Ohio submarines, which are reaching the end of their life. The Columbia class will be made up of 12 SSBNs each weighing nearly 21,000 tonnes underwater. Construction of the first submersible is scheduled to begin this year, with commissioning scheduled for 2031.
2. TK-208 Dimitri Donskoy (Russia) – 174 meters
The sea monster Dimitri Donskoy is the last representative of the Typhoon class, which had six submersibles. In service since the end of December 1981, this SSBN weighing nearly 27,000 tonnes underwater can count on 100,000 horsepower. It can embark up to 160 men over a period of 120 days in the depths.
1. K-329 Belgorod (Russia) – 184 meters
The K-329 Belgorod is not an SSBN but a nuclear submarine cruiser, which can also carry six Poseidon nuclear torpedoes. When it enters service, which should take place this year, it will officially become the longest submarine in the world at 184 meters. It turns out to be ten meters longer than its distant cousin, Dimitri Donskoy, even if the latter is wider.
Under construction since 1992, it will be able to spend up to four months in the depths of the oceans.
The re-election of Chadian President Idriss Déby for a sixth term on Monday sparked fighting between the rebels and the army.
Chadian President Idriss Déby, in power for thirty years and re-elected on Monday , died on Tuesday April 20 at the age of 68 from injuries received while commanding his army in fighting against rebels in the north of the country during the weekend, announces the army.
« The President of the Republic, Head of State, Supreme Head of the Armed Forces, Idriss Déby Itno, has just had his last breath in defending territorial integrity on the battlefield. It is with deep bitterness that we announce to the Chadian people the death on Tuesday, April 20, 2021 of Marshal of Chad, « said army spokesman General Azem Bermandoa Agouna in a press release read on TV Tchad.
Reelected for a sixth term on Monday
President Idriss Déby Itno, who ruled Chad with an iron fist for thirty years, was re-elected Monday for a sixth term with 79.32% of the votes cast in the April 11 presidential election. His re-election had led to fighting for several days, as well as the death of 300 rebels and five soldiers .
The Syrian Observatory for Human Rights (OSDH) published a new assessment on Sunday, March 14, as the conflict enters its eleventh year today.
Ten years after its start, the war in Syria has left at least 388,652 dead, according to a new report published on Sunday March 14 from the Syrian Observatory for Human Rights (OSDH). Triggered in the spring of 2011 with the repression of pro-democracy demonstrations by the regime of Bashar Al-Assad, the conflict today involves a multitude of belligerents and foreign powers.
According to OSDH, nearly 117,388 civilians, including more than 22,000 children, have died since the start of the war in Syria. The UK-based NGO says attacks by the Syrian regime and allied militias are responsible for the majority of civilian deaths. The war also forced more than half of the pre-war population to flee, and some 200,000 people are missing.
OSDH has also documented at least 16,000 deaths in government prisons and detention centers. The NGO says, however, that this record is underestimated, because it does not include the approximately 88,000 people who are said to have died as a result of torture in the regime’s prisons.
Fighting that declined in 2020
The Observatory’s previous count, published in December 2020, stood at more than 387,000 people who have died since the start of the war. According to its director, Rami Abdel Rahmane, this is the lowest annual increase in the number of deaths recorded since the start of the conflict. The fighting did indeed decrease in 2020, due to a ceasefire in northwestern Syria and the Covid-19 pandemic.
Having achieved a string of victories against the jihadists and rebels since 2015, Damascus currently controls more than 60% of Syrian territory. Among the areas still outside the control of Bashar Al-Assad’s regime are the last rebel enclave of Idleb in the north-west of the country, the areas controlled by Turkey along the northern border and the north-eastern parts. of the country under the control of Kurdish forces.
Mohsen Fakhrizadeh, the Iranian scientist who was the victim of an assassination attributed to Israel by Iran on Friday , is one of those men practically unknown on the international scene reaching posthumous notoriety. This Monday, November 30, he was buried with a protocol worthy of the greatest « martyrs » of the Islamic Republic. Here is what we know about him and the operation he suffered.
He was important to his country
The eminent physicist was important enough to meet Iranian Supreme Leader Ali Khamenei in January 2019, as evidenced by official photos released after his death.
Sufficiently important to drive an armored car, to benefit from an armed escort and for the Chief of Staff of the Armed Forces, Major General Mohammad Baghéri, to promise « terrible revenge » will befall his assassins.
Still important enough to be the subject of a state funeral. His remains were honored on Saturday and Sunday in two of Iran’s main Shiite holy places (Mashhad and Qom), before a tribute at the mausoleum of Imam Khomeini in Tehran. The funeral prayer was led on Monday by Ziaoddine Aqajanpour, representative of Supreme Leader Ali Khamenei, at the Ministry of Defense. The “martyr doctor” was brought to the ground at Imamzadeh-Saleh, an important Shiite shrine in northern Tehran, where two other scientists were buried in 2010 and 2011.
And perhaps also so important, in the eyes of those who eliminated it, to justify an operation which in all likelihood required advanced logistics and resources.
It was only after Fakhrizadeh’s death that Defense Minister Amir Hatami revealed that this atomist scholar was one of his deputy ministers and the head of the Research and Research Organization. innovation in defense (Sepand, according to the acronym in Persian).
Iran’s nuclear center
What exact role did this grizzly bearded 59-year-old nuclear physicist play, according to Iranian press? Was he this senior official who « managed atomic defense » , doing « considerable work » in this field and having played a « significant role in the defense innovations » of his country, as General Hatami said?
Or, as Israeli Prime Minister Benyamin Netanyahu said in April 2018 , the head of a secret military nuclear program, which Tehran has always denied? « Remember that name, Fakhrizadeh, » he said at the time, showing the documents which he said proved Iran had lied when it claimed not to have sought nuclear weapons and that it he 2015 nuclear deal was based on the “Iranian deception” . General Hatami, for his part, denied that Fakhrizadeh had participated in any military nuclear program.
For Karim Sadjadpour, of the American think tank Carnegie Foundation for International Peace, « it will probably take months, if not years, to appreciate all the consequences of Fakhrizadeh’s death . » « Those who truly understood the precise role he played in Iran’s day-to-day nuclear activities don’t speak, and those who speak don’t know , » he tweeted .
American media have called him « the number one target of Mossad » , the Israeli intelligence agency, and « the mastermind of Iran’s nuclear program » .
UN sanctions targeted for him
Before Mr. Netanyahu spoke about him, Mohsen Fakhrizadeh appeared in December 2015 in a document from the International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA). This UN body considered that it had led, from the « early 2000s » , « activities in support of a possible military dimension » of the Iranian nuclear program started « at the end of the 1980s » before being regrouped under his direction in a project called AMAD, until being abandoned « at the end of 2003 » .
In March 2007, the same Fakhrizadeh was targeted by UN Security Council sanctions along with other « persons contributing to Iran’s nuclear or ballistic missile program » . Council Resolution 1747 identified him as « research fellow at the Ministry of Defense » and « former head of the Physics Research Center (PHRC) » , noting that « the IAEA had asked to question him on the activities of the PHRC during his time there ” , but that it had “ met with a refusal from Iran ” .
Mohsen Fakhrizadeh, le scientifique iranien victime vendredi d’un assassinat attribué à Israël par l’Iran, fait partie de ces hommes pratiquement inconnus à l’international accédant à une notoriété posthume. Ce lundi 30 novembre, il a été enterré avec un protocole digne des plus grands « martyrs » de la République islamique. Voici ce que l’on sait de lui et de l’opération dont il a été victime.
Il était important pour son pays
L’éminent physicien était suffisamment important pour rencontrer le guide suprême iranien Ali Khamenei en janvier 2019, comme en témoignent des photos officielles diffusées après son décès.
Suffisamment important pour rouler en voiture blindée, bénéficier d’une escorte armée et pour que le chef d’état-major des forces armées, le général de division Mohammad Baghéri, promette qu’une « vengeance terrible » s’abattra sur ses assassins.
Suffisamment important encore pour faire l’objet de funérailles nationales. Sa dépouille avait été honorée samedi et dimanche dans deux des principaux lieux saints chiites d’Iran (Machhad et Qom), avant un hommage au mausolée de l’imam Khomeiny à Téhéran. La prière mortuaire a été dirigée ce lundi par Ziaoddine Aqajanpour, représentant du guide suprême Ali Khamenei, au ministère de la défense. Le « docteur martyr » a été porté en terre à l’Imamzadeh-Saleh, important sanctuaire chiite dans le nord de Téhéran, où reposent deux autres scientifiques assassinés en 2010 et 2011.
Et peut-être aussi tellement important, aux yeux de ceux qui l’ont éliminé, pour justifier une opération ayant requis selon toute vraisemblance une logistique et des moyens de pointe.
Ce n’est qu’après la mort de Fakhrizadeh que le ministre de la défense, Amir Hatami, a révélé que ce savant atomiste était l’un de ses vice-ministres et le chef de l’Organisation de la recherche et de l’innovation en matière de défense (Sépand, selon l’acronyme en persan).
Le centre du nucléaire iranien
Quel rôle exact jouait ce physicien nucléaire barbu grisonnant, âgé de 59 ans, selon la presse iranienne ? Etait-il ce haut responsable qui « gérait la défense antiatomique », faisant « un travail considérable » dans ce domaine et ayant joué un « rôle marquant dans les innovations de défense » de son pays, comme l’a dit le général Hatami ?
Ou, comme l’affirmait le premier ministre israélien Benyamin Nétanyahou en avril 2018, le chef d’un programme nucléaire secret à vocation militaire, dont Téhéran a toujours nié l’existence ? « Souvenez-vous de ce nom, Fakhrizadeh », déclarait-il alors, en montrant les documents qui, selon lui, prouvaient que l’Iran avait menti lorsqu’il affirmait ne pas avoir cherché à se doter d’armes nucléaires et que l’accord nucléaire de 2015 était fondé sur la « duperie iranienne ». Le général Hatami a, de son côté, nié que Fakhrizadeh eût participé à un quelconque programme nucléaire militaire.
Pour Karim Sadjadpour, du cercle de réflexion américain Fondation Carnegie pour la paix internationale, « il faudra vraisemblablement des mois, si ce n’est des années, pour apprécier toutes les conséquences de la mort de Fakhrizadeh ». « Ceux qui ont véritablement compris le rôle précis qu’il jouait au quotidien dans les activités nucléaires de l’Iran ne parlent pas, et ceux qui parlent ne savent pas », a-t-il tweeté.
Des médias américains l’ont qualifié de « cible numéro 1 du Mossad », l’agence de renseignement israélienne, et de « cerveau du programme nucléaire iranien ».
Des sanctions de l’ONU visées pour lui
Avant que M. Nétanyahou parle de lui, Mohsen Fakhrizadeh était apparu en décembre 2015 dans un document de l’Agence internationale de l’énergie atomique (AIEA). Cet organe de l’ONU estimait qu’il avait dirigé, à partir du « début des années 2000 », des « activités à l’appui d’une dimension militaire possible » du programme nucléaire iranien commencées « à la fin des années 1980 » avant d’être regroupées sous sa direction dans un projet baptisé AMAD, jusqu’à être abandonnées « à la fin 2003 ».
En mars 2007, le même Fakhrizadeh avait été visé par des sanctions du Conseil de sécurité de l’ONU avec d’autres « personnes concourant au programme nucléaire ou de missiles balistiques » de l’Iran. La résolution 1747 du Conseil l’identifiait comme « chargé de recherche au ministère de la Défense » et « ex-chef du Centre de recherche en physique (PHRC) », notant que « l’AIEA avait demandé à l’interroger sur les activités du PHRC au cours de la période où il y travaillait », mais qu’elle avait « essuyé un refus de l’Iran ».
Après la décision du président américain Donald Trump de sortir son pays de ce pacte en 2018, les sanctions édictées par Washington en 2008 contre Fakhrizadeh dans le sillage de la résolution 1747 avaient été rétablies.
At first I thought it was the Hollywood film, but after seeing it on the newspaper Le Monde, and the statement of the spokesperson of the Armenian Ministry of Health, Alina Nikoghosian, of these figures on Facebook today I understood correctly that films of Vietnamese stories existed.
“At present, the bodies of 2,317 killed soldiers, including unidentified bodies, have been taken in by the forensic examination service,” the spokeswoman for the Armenian ministry said on Facebook. health, Alina Nikoghosian. According to her, the process of exchanging bodies with Azerbaijan has only just begun. « The belligerents do not have final figures for the moment, » she noted. The Armenian authorities had so far reported 1,339 soldiers and 50 civilians killed in the hostilities which began at the end of September.
Russian President Vladimir Putin, for his part, said on Friday that the fighting in Nagorno-Karabakh has left more than 4,000 victims and 8,000 injured, as well as tens of thousands of refugees.
As a symbol of this humiliating setback, Armenians preferred to burn their house down rather than have it fall into the hands of Azerbaijani forces, on the eve of their expected arrival in certain areas. A journalist from Agence France-Presse saw residents set fire to their homes on Saturday morning in the village of Charektar, in the border area with Nagorno-Karabakh, which Azerbaijani troops are due to take control of on Sunday. The inhabitants took all the belongings they could before leaving. « It’s the last day, tomorrow the Azerbaijani soldiers will be there, » said a soldier before setting his house on fire.
“We were waiting to be fixed. But when they started to dismantle the hydroelectric station, we understood, ”says another inhabitant of the village. “Everyone is going to burn down their house today (…). We were given until midnight to leave. «