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The 10 biggest submarines in the world

Deployed from the Great War onwards and then widely used during the Second World War, submarines occupy a special place in conflicts. From small submersibles used for infiltration missions near enemy coasts, armies have grown into real nuclear-powered behemoths. Today, nuclear missile submarines (SSBNs) are primarily used for deterrence missions.

These giants of the seas, often longer than a football field, can shoot down missiles equipped with several nuclear warheads, each of which has a power equivalent to seven times that of Hiroshima.

The SSBNs in circulation are spread among a handful of nations: France, China, United States, India, Russia and United Kingdom. Important clarification: the two rivals of the Cold War share nearly three-quarters of the world SSBN fleet. They are now 40 in circulation.

Here are the ten longest submarines on the planet:

10. Le Triomphant Class (France) – 138 meters

Le Terrible submarine is the most recent of the four Le Triomphant class SSBNs in France. It was commissioned in September 2010.

9. Vanguard Class (UK) – 149 meters

The United Kingdom has four SSBNs, making up a class called Vanguard. The most recent, HMS Vengeance , entered service in November 1999. Each British SSBN carries 40 nuclear warheads.

8. Dreadnought Class (UK) – 153 meters

The Deadnought class, officially announced in 2016, is expected to take over from Vanguard, whose submarines date from the 1990s. The first of four new submersibles is due to enter service in 2028. The HMS Dreadnought will weigh 17,000 tonnes and be equipped of « new innovative lighting which will allow the crew to simulate night and day », explains BAE Systems, the company in charge of the work.

7.K-44 Ryazan (Russia) – 155 meters

The K-44 Ryazan, Delta III class, was commissioned by Russia in January 1982. Weighing just over 13,000 tons underwater, it can accommodate 130 crew members.

6. Class Delta IV (Russia) – 167 meters

Commissioned between 1984 and 1990, the seven Delta IV class submarines each weigh just over 18,000 tonnes. They can evolve between 320 and 400 meters deep. The submersibles carry RSM-54 Makeyev missiles, which have a maximum range of 8,300 kilometers.

5. Class Boreï (Russia)  170 meters

With four submersibles, the Boreï class represents the second Russian SSBN fleet, after the Delta class. These submarines were the first to be built by Russia after the fall of the Soviet Union. Launched between 2008 and 2017, they are split between the Barents Sea and the Pacific Ocean. They reach 24,000 tonnes when diving and can go up to 480 meters deep.

4. Ohio Class (United States) – 170 meters

The Ohio class was, when launched in 1981, the largest submarines ever built by the United States. 14 submersibles now make up this class; the latest, the USS Louisiana , was commissioned in September 1997. Each of them carries 24 Trident nuclear-warhead sea-to-ground missiles, with a range of 7,400 kilometers.

3. Columbia Class (United States) – 171 meters

The United States is planning to replace its Ohio submarines, which are reaching the end of their life. The Columbia class will be made up of 12 SSBNs each weighing nearly 21,000 tonnes underwater. Construction of the first submersible is scheduled to begin this year, with commissioning scheduled for 2031.

2. TK-208 Dimitri Donskoy (Russia) – 174 meters

The sea monster Dimitri Donskoy is the last representative of the Typhoon class, which had six submersibles. In service since the end of December 1981, this SSBN weighing nearly 27,000 tonnes underwater can count on 100,000 horsepower. It can embark up to 160 men over a period of 120 days in the depths.

1. K-329 Belgorod (Russia) – 184 meters

The K-329 Belgorod is not an SSBN but a nuclear submarine cruiser, which can also carry six Poseidon nuclear torpedoes. When it enters service, which should take place this year, it will officially become the longest submarine in the world at 184 meters. It turns out to be ten meters longer than its distant cousin, Dimitri Donskoy, even if the latter is wider.

Under construction since 1992, it will be able to spend up to four months in the depths of the oceans.

# Business Insider

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The 10 trees oldest than the Bible that still exist today

Today, there are still natural wonders in this world that have survived for thousands of years. The month old is over 3500 years old today, these 10 trees are on the earth even before the arrival of Jesus Christ.

10. The Senator

The senator
photo source:  Wikimedia Commons

Located in Florida, the Senator had existed since the 14th century BCE, he was one of the oldest and largest bald cypress trees in the world with an estimated age of 3,500 years. Its summit was damaged by a hurricane in 1925, and unfortunately the Senator was destroyed by fire in 2012,

9. Gran Abuelo

Gran Abuelo
photo source:  New Atlas

Located in the Alerce Costero National Park in Chile, the  Gran Abuelo  (in Spanish) “great-grandfather”), is the oldest living tree in South America. Abuelo was determined in 1993 after researchers used a growth ring to verify its antiquity – they estimated the tree to be around 3,622 years old at the time.

8. Sarv-e Abarkuh

Sarv-e Abarkuh
photo source:  Wikimedia Commons

The legend says that this tree was planted by Japheth, the third son of the biblical figure Noah.

Located in Iran, the Sarv-e Abarkuh (Abarkuh cypress) is believed to be one of the oldest trees in the world as its age is estimated to be between 4,000 and 5,000 years.

7. Llangernyw yew

Llangernyw yew
photo source:  geograph.org.uk

 The yew is located in the cemetery of Saint Digain’s Church in the village of Llangernyw and the church has a certificate signed by David Bellamy, English botanist, author, broadcaster and conservationist, saying that the tree is 4000 to 5000 years old based on thousands of years of written records.

The  age of the Yew Llangernyw  is estimated between 4000 and 5000 years. Dating yews is often difficult because the stone has been lost, with several large branches growing out of the central area of ​​the tree.

6. Methuselah

Methuselah
photo source:  Wikimedia Commons

Located in California, Methuselah is named after the oldest biblical figure, Methuselah, who lived to be 969 years old.

Until 2012, Methuselah was the oldest known tree in the world and its age (4,789 years old at the time) was discovered in 1957 by Tom Harlan and Edmund Schulman. 

5. Prometheus

Prometheus
photo source:  Wikimedia Commons
Prometheus
photo source:  Wikimedia Commons

Located in a grove of several old trees in Wheeler Park, Nevada. Prior to its demise in 1964,  Prometheus  was one of the oldest trees in the world and at the time was even older than Methuselah.

In 1964, geographer Donald R. Currey obtained permission from the Forest Service to take a basic sample of the tree to determine its age, which he suspected to be over 4,000 years old. de Currey went wrong and the entire tree was cut down. 

4.Pin Bristlecone

Unnamed Grand Bassin Bristlecone Pine
photo source:  Wikipedia

Located in California this tree that have existed since the unification of lower and upper Egypt by Narmer in -3150 BC, this tree is considered the oldest tree in the world. It was named the oldest tree in 2012, breaking the previous record holder of over 200 years. The tree was cored by Edmund Schulman in the late 1950s, but he did not have a chance to date his sample until his death in 1958.

The age of the tree was then determined by Tom Harlan in 2010, who was working on the samples Schulman collected before his death. Before his death, Harlan reported that the tree was still alive and was 5,062 years old.

3.old Tjikko

Old Tjikko

Located in the Fulufjället Mountain of the Dalarna province in Sweden, when old Tjikko was first  discovered in Sweden in 2008  , it was declared the oldest tree in the world and was estimated to be around 10,000 years old. 

While Old Tjikko has become the « oldest tree in the world », it is not as old as the Jurupa oak (over 13,000 years old), which was discovered a year later. Moreover, Tjikko is only one eighth the age of Pando, 80,000 years!

Like these two older trees, Old Tjikko is also a clone, but not a colony like Pando and the Jurupa oak – instead, Old Tjikko regenerates new trunks, branches, and roots in one place. Old Tjikko’s root system is around 10,000 years old, while its trunks typically only survive for around 600 years before a new cloned tree grows back in its place.

2. Jurupa oak

Jurupa oak

 Located in the Jurupa Mountains in California, discovered only in the last decade, the Jurupa Oak is over 13,000 years old. Its age was estimated by researchers based on the size of the colony and the growth of individual stems.

1.Pando

Pando

Located in the Fishlake National Forest in Utah, United States, the  Pando  is the  oldest tree in the world as  well as one of  the oldest living organisms  , with an estimated age of over 80,000 years,

 While most of the other trees on this list are individuals, Pando is a clonal colony that shares an underground root system. Above ground, Pando may look like a grove of individual trees, but they are all genetically identical clones.

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Les 10 arbres plus âgés que la Bible qui existent encore aujourd’hui

Aujourd’hui,il existe encore des merveilles naturelles dans ce monde qui ont survécu pendant des milliers d’années. Le mois âge a plus de 3500ans aujourd’hui,ces 10 arbres sont sur la terre avant même l’arrivée de Jésus Christ.

10. Le sénateur

Le sénateur
source de la photo: Wikimedia Commons

Situé en floride,le sénateur existait depuis le 14è siècle avant notre ère,il était l’un des plus vieux et des plus grands cyprès chauves au monde avec un âge estimé à 3 500 ans. Son sommet a été endommagé par un ouragan en 1925, et malheureusement, le sénateur a été détruit par un incendie en 2012,

9. Gran Abuelo

Gran Abuelo
source de la photo: Nouvel Atlas

Situé dans le parc national Alerce Costero au Chili le Gran Abuelo (en espagnol) «arrière-grand-père»), est le plus vieil arbre vivant d’Amérique du Sud.  Abuelo a été déterminé en 1993 après que les chercheurs ont utilisé un anneau de croissance pour vérifier son antiquité – ils ont estimé que l’arbre avait environ 3622 ans à l’époque.

8. Sarv-e Abarkuh

Sarv-e Abarkuh
source de la photo: Wikimedia Commons

La légende dit que cet arbre a été planté par Japhet, le troisième fils de la figure biblique Noé.

Situé en Iran on pense que le Sarv-e Abarkuh (cyprès d’Abarkuh) est l’un des plus vieux arbres du monde car son âge est estimé entre 4 000 et 5 000 ans.

7. If de Llangernyw

If de Llangernyw
source de la photo: geograph.org.uk

 L’if est situé dans le cimetière de l’église Saint-Digain dans le village de Llangernyw et l’église a un certificat signé par David Bellamy, botaniste anglais, auteur, diffuseur et défenseur de l’environnement, disant que l’arbre est âgé de 4000 à 5000 ans sur la base de milliers des années de documents écrits.

L’ âge de l’if de Llangernyw est estimé entre 4 000 et 5 000 ans. La datation des ifs est souvent difficile car le noyau a été perdu, avec plusieurs grandes ramifications poussant hors de la zone centrale de l’arbre.

6. Mathusalem

Methuselah
source de la photo: Wikimedia Commons

Situé en Californie, Mathusalem porte le nom de la plus ancienne figure biblique, Mathusalem, qui a vécu jusqu’à 969 ans.

Jusqu’en 2012, Methuselah était le plus vieil arbre connu au monde et son âge (4789 ans à l’époque) a été découvert en 1957 par Tom Harlan et Edmund Schulman. 

5. Prométhée

Prométhée
source de la photo: Wikimedia Commons
Prométhée
source de la photo: Wikimedia Commons

Situé dans un bosquet de plusieurs vieux arbres à Wheeler Park, Nevada.Avant sa disparition en 1964, Prométhée était l’un des arbres les plus anciens du monde et à l’époque, il était encore plus vieux que Methuselah.

En 1964, le géographe Donald R. Currey a obtenu la permission du Service des forêts de prélever un échantillon de base de l’arbre pour déterminer son âge, qu’il soupçonnait d’être plus de 4 000 ans.Malheureusement, l’extraction de Currey a mal tourné et l’arbre entier a été abattu. 

4.Pin Bristlecone

Pin Bristlecone du Grand Bassin sans nom
source de la photo: Wikipedia

Situé en Californie cet arbre qui existent depuis l’unification de basse et haute Egypte par Narmer en -3150 avant Jésus Christ, cet arbre est considéré comme le plus vieil arbre au monde. Il a été nommé le plus vieil arbre en 2012, battant le détenteur du record précédent de plus de 200 ans. L’arbre a été carotté par Edmund Schulman à la fin des années 1950, mais il n’a pas eu la chance de dater son échantillon avant son décès en 1958.

L’âge de l’arbre a ensuite été déterminé par Tom Harlan en 2010, qui travaillait sur les échantillons que Schulman avait collectés avant sa mort. Avant sa mort, Harlan a rapporté que l’arbre était toujours vivant et qu’il avait 5 062 ans.

3.old Tjikko

Vieux Tjikko

Situé dans la Montagne Fulufjället de la province de Dalarna en Suède,lorsque old Tjikko a été découvert pour la première fois en Suède en 2008 , il a été déclaré le plus vieil arbre du monde et a été estimé à environ 10 000 ans. 

Alors que Old Tjikko est devenu le «plus vieil arbre du monde», il n’est pas aussi vieux que le chêne Jurupa (plus de 13 000 ans), qui a été découvert un an plus tard. De plus, Tjikko n’a qu’un huitième de l’âge de Pando, 80 000 ans!

Comme ces deux arbres plus âgés, Old Tjikko est également un clone, mais ce n’est pas une colonie comme Pando et le chêne Jurupa – au lieu de cela, Old Tjikko régénère de nouveaux troncs, branches et racines au même endroit. Le système racinaire de Old Tjikko a environ 10 000 ans, tandis que ses troncs ne survivent généralement que pendant environ 600 ans avant qu’un nouvel arbre clone ne repousse à sa place.

2. Chêne Jurupa

Chêne Jurupa

 Situé dans les montagnes Jurupa en Californie, découvert seulement au cours de la dernière décennie, le chêne Jurupa a plus de 13 000 ans. Son âge a été estimé par les chercheurs en fonction de la taille de la colonie et de la croissance des tiges individuelles.

1.Pando

Pando

Situé dans le Fishlake National Forest en Utah, aux États Unis,le Pando est le plus vieil arbre du monde ainsi que l’un des plus anciens organismes vivants ,son un âge est estimé à plus de 80 000 ans,

 Alors que la plupart des autres arbres de cette liste sont des individus, Pando est une colonie clonale qui partage un système racinaire souterrain. Au-dessus du sol, Pando peut ressembler à un bosquet d’arbres individuels, mais ce sont tous des clones génétiquement identiques.

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The 10 richest presidents of all time

01-1451633200-putin-gaddafi

It is not surprising that the presidents of the different countries of the world are very wealthy. Some of them were born into wealthy families, while others rose through the ranks by honest means.

Here are the 10 richest presidents of all time according to MSN:

10. Zine El Abidine Ben Ali (10 billion dollars)

Zine El Abidine Ben Ali was a former Tunisian leader. According to sources, he controlled 30 to 40% of the country’s economy. He was kicked out of power in 2011.

9. Mobutu Sese Seko ($ 12) billion)

Mobutu Sese Seko was a ruler of Zaire from 1965 to 1997. Today Zaire is known as the Republic of Congo. With his immense fortune, he owned palaces and luxury residences in Zaire and abroad.

8.José Eduardo dos Santos ($ 20 billion)

José Eduardo dos Santos, former national leader of Angola, ruled the country from 1979 to 2017. He accumulated a lot of wealth during his tenure. His daughter, Isabel, is one of the richest women in Africa.

7. Ibrahim Babangida ($ 22.7 billion)

Check out the top 10 richest presidents of all time (photos)

Ibrahim Babangida was the Supreme Leader of Nigeria from 1985 to 1993.

6. Ferdinand Marcos ($ 53.1 billion)

Check out the top 10 richest presidents of all time (photos)

Ferdinand Marcos ruled the Philippines from 1972 to 1986. He was known to have a wife who loved the finer things in life.

5. Suharto ($ 55 billion)

Suharto, former ruler of Indonesia, was one of the richest presidents in the world. He ruled the country for 31 years before stepping down in 1998. His net worth was $ 55 billion at the time of his death in 2008.

4. Ali Abdullah Saleh ($ 64 billion)

Ali Abdullah Saleh was the national leader of Yemen from 1990 to 2012. According to a report that was filed with the United Nations Security Council, he had a net worth of $ 64 billion in 2015.

3. Hosni Mubarak ($ 70 billion)

Hosni Mubarak was an Egyptian leader. He was overthrown from power in 2011 during the Arab Spring protests, after ruling the country for 30 years.

2. Vladimir Putin (over $ 206 billion)

From 2011 to 2016, he earned a combined salary of $ 673,000. However, his net worth is said to have grown to $ 200 billion. He has investments in the West as well as in many banks. His estimated net worth of $ 206.3 billion was disclosed by Bill Browder, former CEO of Hermitage Capital Management.

1. Muammar Gaddafi (224 billion dollars)

Muammar Gaddafi is undoubtedly the richest president of all time. He ruled Libya from 1977 to 2011. Prior to his assassination in 2011, his net worth was around $ 224.8 billion.