Catégories
Non classé

America was discovered by the Vikings … 400 years before Christopher Columbus

It was from the north that the Vikings would have discovered America around the year 1000. Pixabay – gloverbh222

The doubt was allowed since archaeological discoveries of a few decades ago. Now it is a fact: the presence of the Vikings in North America has been confirmed … 400 years before the arrival of Christopher Columbus.

We will have to review all the textbooks and update all our certainties on the discovery of the Americas. Until now, history has taught schoolchildren around the world that Christopher Columbus, funded by Queen Isabella of Spain, discovered America in 1492 while exploring a new sea route to India through the Atlantic Ocean.

Since archaeological excavations dating back 50 years, there was doubt about the identity of the first Europeans to have set foot on American soil. Indeed, traces of Vikings had been spotted in northeastern Canada in particular thanks to wooden objects.null

But this time, there is no longer any doubt. A study published in the journal Nature by the University of Groningen (Netherlands) toured the world on Wednesday, October 20. It indicates that researchers found a way to confirm the presence of the Vikings in Newfoundland, 400 years before the arrival (much further south) of Christopher Columbus.

A decisive solar storm

And it is the sun that enlightened the researchers. This is because a solar storm dated to AD 993 released a huge pulse of radiation that was absorbed and stored by trees all over the Earth. It was this solar event that turned out to be decisive in determining the exact year the Vikings were present in the Americas.

Until now, the wooden elements recovered 50 years ago had been dated but with the radiocarbon technique the margin of error was about a century. But researchers at the time had recovered and preserved hundreds of other additional pieces of wood found on and around the site, storing many in freezers in a Canadian warehouse to prevent them from rotting. 

A stock which represented a « gold mine » for the archaeologist of the University of Groningen, Margot Kuitems, co-author of the study.

The thing that changed everything is that three of the wood samples were from living trees during the solar event of 993. The cosmic storm was so powerful that it embedded itself in the layers of trees around the world. , creating a kind of timestamp of these.

This phenomenon having only occurred twice during the last 2000 years, it was then « easier » to date the pieces of wood … and in particular the year of the felling of the tree by the Vikings which dates back to the 1000s. Christopher Columbus did not land in San Salvador until 1492 …

Stephane Sicard

Catégories
Non classé

Major General Chris Donahue, the last American soldier to leave Afghan soil

Major General Chris Donahue, the last American soldier to leave Afghan soil, at Hamid-Karzai International Airport in Kabul on August 30, 2021.
Major General Chris Donahue, the last American soldier to leave Afghan soil, at Hamid-Karzai International Airport in Kabul, August 30, 2021. US ARMY / REUTERS

After twenty years of military presence and five months of wandering the Biden administration, the last American soldiers have left Kabul

Promised by the new president upon his arrival at the White House, the withdrawal of the United States from Afghanistan was concluded on Monday, August 30, in an atmosphere of debacle and excitement.

The photo is blurry, taken at night, with greenish tones. It distinguishes Major General Chris Donahue, commander of the 82 th  Airborne Division, setting foot aboard a cargo plane C-17 end of the runway at the international airport Hamid-Karzai in Kabul. Chris Donahue makes history. He is the last American soldier to leave Afghan soil.

There are no more US military forces in Afghanistan. The announcement was made late in the afternoon in Washington, Monday, August 30, by General Kenneth McKenzie , head of the central command. Either twenty-four hours before the planned deadline with the Taliban.

Catégories
Non classé

Discovery in China of a new species of prehistoric man

The new species was named Homo longi, which literally means « dragon man », a derivative of the name of the province where it was found.PHOTO XIJUN NI, AFP

) Neanderthals would ultimately not be modern man’s closest cousin. Scientists who analyzed a skull fossil found in China claim that it belongs to a new species of prehistoric man, less distant from us than the Neanderthals.

Harbin’s skull is particularly well preserved: it is the best-preserved fossil from this period (Middle Pleistocene), according to the researchers who published their work on Friday in the journal The Innovation . It dates from around 146,000 years ago.

« According to our analyzes, the Harbin group is more closely related to Homo sapiens than the Neanderthals are, » Chris Stringer, paleoanthropologist at the London Museum of Natural History and one of the co-authors of the study. “That is, Harbin shared a more recent common ancestor with us than the Neanderthals. « 

The genus Homo includes many extinct species, including Neanderthals, as well as our own, Homo sapiens – the only one now inhabiting the Earth.

The new species was named Homo longi, which literally means « dragon man », a derivative of the name of the province where it was found.

The skull was discovered in 1933 by a man working for the Japanese, who then occupied the region, during the construction of a bridge near the city of Harbin, in northeast China. .

Realizing the value of his find and not wanting it to fall into the hands of the Japanese, the man decided to « hide the skull in a well for a very long time, » Xijun Ni told AFP. lead authors of the study.

Learning his secret decades later, this man’s descendants finally donated the skull to Hebei GEO University in 2018.

Big and sturdy

The skull is a priori that of a man in his fifties, belonging to a population of hunter-gatherers.

His browbones are very large, as are his nose, almost square eye sockets and upper jaw. But it features delicate, flat cheekbones.

« The combination of an archaic but bulky cranial vault, and a large face but similar to Homo sapiens, is striking, » describes the study. This bone « differs from all other Homo species ».

These prehistoric humans were presumably tall and hardy.

« Based on the winter temperatures in Harbin today, you’d think they faced even more severe cold than the Neanderthals, » says Stringer. “This probably required both physical and cultural adaptations, but we cannot say more for now as we have no archaeological material associated” with this remains of Homo longi.

The researchers studied the morphology of the skull by isolating some 600 characteristic features, which they then compared using a powerful computer with those of other bones, in order to build a sort of huge family tree.

According to them, other specimens found in Asia (Dali, Jinniushan, Hualongdong, Xiahe) also belong to this new species.

« Third line »

Over 100,000 years ago, several human species coexisted on Earth across Europe, Africa and Asia, including Homo sapiens and Neanderthals.

This discovery « establishes a third human lineage in East Asia » alongside the latter two « and shows the importance of this region for human evolution, » insisted Chris Stringer.

One of the questions that remain to be clarified is whether this line is linked to the Denisovans, another species that evolved during this period, recently discovered thanks to DNA analyzes.

« I think it is quite possible that this skull (of Harbin) is a Denisovan skull […] but it will still take a lot of work to prove it, » said the paleoanthropologist.

The « dragon men » may have also been able to meet Homo sapiens, he believes.

« If the Harbin group forms a single group with the Denisovans, then we know that they did indeed reproduce with the Neanderthals and our own species, » said the researcher.

Catégories
Non classé

Discovery in Israel of a new species of the genus Homo

Eight meters deep, at the prehistoric site of Nesher Ramla in Israel, Dr. Zaidner probably did not expect to make a discovery that would revolutionize our knowledge of the origin of Neanderthals.null

During excavations near the town of Ramla, researchers found prehistoric human remains that they could not attribute to a species of the genus  Homo already defined. In an article published in the journal  Science , a team of anthropologists from Tel Aviv University and a team of archaeologists from the Hebrew University of Jerusalem therefore define a new type of the Homo genus  , the Nesher Ramla type. This is the first described in Israel and is named after the site where it was discovered. The human remains, which consist of part of the cranial vault and a mandible , belonged to an individual who is believed to have lived between 140,000 and 120,000 years BC.

The morphology of these bones is remarkable in that some of the dental and jaw characters are common with those of Neanderthals , while those of the skull are shared with archaic individuals of the genus  Homo . In addition, the Homo type  of Nesher Ramla differs from modern man because of its cranial structure, because of its absence of a chin (which is a characteristic specific to  H. sapiens ) and the presence of very large teeth.

The authors also indicate that the fossil of the Man of Nesher Ramla was found in association with bones of horses, deer and aurochs as well as tools attesting to advanced stone cutting technology . The authors recall that this fossil of Man by Nesher Ramla is not the only one whose classification has baffled anthropologists . Several human fossils previously unearthed in Israel showed similar morphological characteristics and can now no doubt be attributed to this new type of the genus  Homo .

Bone remains belonging to Homo Nesher Ramla and found in Israel.  © Tel Aviv University
Bone remains belonging to  Homo Nesher Ramla and found in Israel. © Tel Aviv University  

Homo Nesher Ramla: the “missing” population?

Nesher Ramla’s discovery of the human type shakes up the hitherto privileged hypothesis of an emergence of Neanderthals in Europe which would then have migrated in small groups towards the south to escape the formation of glaciers and which would have reached Israel 70,000 ago. years. Rather, the fossil suggests that the ancestor of Neanderthals in Europe lived in the Near East 400,000 years ago and migrated several times to Europe and Asia.

This “missing” population in the fossil record to which Homo Nesher Ramla now belongs  is believed to be the source population from which most Pleistocene humans developed. This therefore implies that the Neanderthals of Western Europe would only constitute a residual population of a larger group originating in the Near East.

Cranial morphologies of several hominins.  © stockdevil, Adobe Stock
Cranial morphologies of several hominins. © stockdevil, Adobe Stock

The authors of the study further suggest that individuals of the Nesher Ramla type have reproduced with  Homo sapiens , which arrived 200,000 years ago in the Near East. The spatio-temporal localization of the fossil of Nesher Ramla would therefore make it possible to explain how genes of  H. sapiens were found in the European population of Neanderthals long before the arrival of modern humans in Europe. However, the fossil of the Man of Nesher Ramla does not contain DNA and although its belonging to a « source » population of the genus  Homo is today favored by the authors, it remains in suspense.

Source : futura Sciences

Catégories
Non classé

Charles Darwin is not the first father of the theory of evolution, but the Iraqi scientist Al-Jahiz

About 1000 years before Charles Darwin wrote a book on how animals change through a process he called « natural selection, » a Muslim philosopher living in Iraq named Al-Jahiz had already preceded him. .

British scientist Charles Darwin’s theory of evolution is one of the cornerstones of modern science.

The idea that species gradually change over time through a mechanism called natural selection has revolutionized our understanding of the living world.

But it seems that the theory of evolution itself also has an ancestor in the Islamic world.

His real name Abu Usman Amr Bahr Bahr Alkanani al-Basri is remembered by history by his nickname, Al-Jahiz, which means someone whose eyes seem to be sticking out of their sockets.

His most famous work, The Book of Animals, is designed as an encyclopedia featuring 350 animals, in which Al-Jahiz presents ideas that bear a striking resemblance to Darwin’s theory of evolution.

« Animals engage in a struggle for existence and for resources, to avoid being eaten and to reproduce, » writes Al-Jahiz, « environmental factors influence organisms to develop new characteristics to ensure their survival. survival, thus transforming them into new species ”.

He adds, “Animals that survive to reproduce can pass their characteristics on to their offspring. « 

It was clear to Al-Jahiz that the living world was in constant struggle for survival and that one species was always stronger than another.

Charles Darwin rightly deserves his reputation as a scientist who has spent years traveling and observing the natural world, and who founded his theory with unprecedented precision and clarity to transform the way we see the world.

With BBC

Catégories
Non classé

Prince Philip, Husband of Queen Elizabeth II, Is Dead at 99

Prince Philip, the Duke of Edinburgh, husband of Queen Elizabeth II, father of Prince Charles and patriarch of a turbulent royal family that he sought to ensure would not be Britain’s last, died on Friday at Windsor Castle in England. He was 99.

« Prince Philip, Husband of Queen Elizabeth II, Is Dead at 99 – https://www.nytimes.com/2021/04/09/obituaries/prince-philip-dead.html

Catégories
Non classé

The end of 7 wonders of the world

 Over the course of history, different human civilizations have built many monuments around the world. Each of these wonders of the world by its size, its technical genius, its artistic beauty, testifies to the power of their patrons. However, this golden age ended up collapsing, today there is only one of these 7 treasures. 

The statue of Zeus

It was built in the 5th century BC by the sculptor Phidias, In the 5th century AD the statue of Zeus was taken to Constantinople where it will be destroyed by fire in 461.

The Hanging Gardens of Babylon

 The existence of this wonder is far from being proven because the various archaeological excavations carried out on the site of Babylon in Iraq have so far not revealed their location. Built in the 4th century BC by Nebuchadnezzar 2 to remind his wife, Amytis of Media, of the wooded mountains of his native land.

It fell into the hands of Alexander during his conquest and after his death these hanging gardens are abandoned and disappear.

The temple of Artemis at Ephesus

 Built in Ionia (present-day Turkey) in the 5th century BC. The monument would have disappeared in an arson in – 356 before being rebuilt then the first Christians tore the temple of Artemis to pieces.

The Colossus of Rhode

The statue representing the god Helios is said to have been built on the Greek island of Rhodes in the 3rd century BC. Unfortunately an earthquake destroyed the Colossus of Rhodes 56 years after its completion.

The lighthouse of Alexandria      

 Its construction dates back to the 3rd century BC under General Ptolemy, to guide sailors at the level of the coasts of Alexandria. Located in a seismic zone, yet it will remain standing for 1500 years. It would have withstood 20 major earthquakes of magnitude 8 on the Richter scale. But in the 14th century two large earthquakes marked the end of this treasure.

The tomb of Mausolus at Halicarnassus

This monument was built in the 4th century, in honor of Mausole, the governor of caries a region of Asia Minor. The tomb fell into ruins from the 15th century and eventually fell into oblivion.

The pyramid of Cheops

The pyramid of Cheops is the only wonder to have managed to cross the centuries. It is also the oldest among the other 7 because it was built in the 3rd millennium BC. Today it is one of the most visited sites in the world.

Catégories
Non classé

The 10 trees oldest than the Bible that still exist today

Today, there are still natural wonders in this world that have survived for thousands of years. The month old is over 3500 years old today, these 10 trees are on the earth even before the arrival of Jesus Christ.

10. The Senator

The senator
photo source:  Wikimedia Commons

Located in Florida, the Senator had existed since the 14th century BCE, he was one of the oldest and largest bald cypress trees in the world with an estimated age of 3,500 years. Its summit was damaged by a hurricane in 1925, and unfortunately the Senator was destroyed by fire in 2012,

9. Gran Abuelo

Gran Abuelo
photo source:  New Atlas

Located in the Alerce Costero National Park in Chile, the  Gran Abuelo  (in Spanish) “great-grandfather”), is the oldest living tree in South America. Abuelo was determined in 1993 after researchers used a growth ring to verify its antiquity – they estimated the tree to be around 3,622 years old at the time.

8. Sarv-e Abarkuh

Sarv-e Abarkuh
photo source:  Wikimedia Commons

The legend says that this tree was planted by Japheth, the third son of the biblical figure Noah.

Located in Iran, the Sarv-e Abarkuh (Abarkuh cypress) is believed to be one of the oldest trees in the world as its age is estimated to be between 4,000 and 5,000 years.

7. Llangernyw yew

Llangernyw yew
photo source:  geograph.org.uk

 The yew is located in the cemetery of Saint Digain’s Church in the village of Llangernyw and the church has a certificate signed by David Bellamy, English botanist, author, broadcaster and conservationist, saying that the tree is 4000 to 5000 years old based on thousands of years of written records.

The  age of the Yew Llangernyw  is estimated between 4000 and 5000 years. Dating yews is often difficult because the stone has been lost, with several large branches growing out of the central area of ​​the tree.

6. Methuselah

Methuselah
photo source:  Wikimedia Commons

Located in California, Methuselah is named after the oldest biblical figure, Methuselah, who lived to be 969 years old.

Until 2012, Methuselah was the oldest known tree in the world and its age (4,789 years old at the time) was discovered in 1957 by Tom Harlan and Edmund Schulman. 

5. Prometheus

Prometheus
photo source:  Wikimedia Commons
Prometheus
photo source:  Wikimedia Commons

Located in a grove of several old trees in Wheeler Park, Nevada. Prior to its demise in 1964,  Prometheus  was one of the oldest trees in the world and at the time was even older than Methuselah.

In 1964, geographer Donald R. Currey obtained permission from the Forest Service to take a basic sample of the tree to determine its age, which he suspected to be over 4,000 years old. de Currey went wrong and the entire tree was cut down. 

4.Pin Bristlecone

Unnamed Grand Bassin Bristlecone Pine
photo source:  Wikipedia

Located in California this tree that have existed since the unification of lower and upper Egypt by Narmer in -3150 BC, this tree is considered the oldest tree in the world. It was named the oldest tree in 2012, breaking the previous record holder of over 200 years. The tree was cored by Edmund Schulman in the late 1950s, but he did not have a chance to date his sample until his death in 1958.

The age of the tree was then determined by Tom Harlan in 2010, who was working on the samples Schulman collected before his death. Before his death, Harlan reported that the tree was still alive and was 5,062 years old.

3.old Tjikko

Old Tjikko

Located in the Fulufjället Mountain of the Dalarna province in Sweden, when old Tjikko was first  discovered in Sweden in 2008  , it was declared the oldest tree in the world and was estimated to be around 10,000 years old. 

While Old Tjikko has become the « oldest tree in the world », it is not as old as the Jurupa oak (over 13,000 years old), which was discovered a year later. Moreover, Tjikko is only one eighth the age of Pando, 80,000 years!

Like these two older trees, Old Tjikko is also a clone, but not a colony like Pando and the Jurupa oak – instead, Old Tjikko regenerates new trunks, branches, and roots in one place. Old Tjikko’s root system is around 10,000 years old, while its trunks typically only survive for around 600 years before a new cloned tree grows back in its place.

2. Jurupa oak

Jurupa oak

 Located in the Jurupa Mountains in California, discovered only in the last decade, the Jurupa Oak is over 13,000 years old. Its age was estimated by researchers based on the size of the colony and the growth of individual stems.

1.Pando

Pando

Located in the Fishlake National Forest in Utah, United States, the  Pando  is the  oldest tree in the world as  well as one of  the oldest living organisms  , with an estimated age of over 80,000 years,

 While most of the other trees on this list are individuals, Pando is a clonal colony that shares an underground root system. Above ground, Pando may look like a grove of individual trees, but they are all genetically identical clones.

Catégories
Non classé

Les 10 arbres plus âgés que la Bible qui existent encore aujourd’hui

Aujourd’hui,il existe encore des merveilles naturelles dans ce monde qui ont survécu pendant des milliers d’années. Le mois âge a plus de 3500ans aujourd’hui,ces 10 arbres sont sur la terre avant même l’arrivée de Jésus Christ.

10. Le sénateur

Le sénateur
source de la photo: Wikimedia Commons

Situé en floride,le sénateur existait depuis le 14è siècle avant notre ère,il était l’un des plus vieux et des plus grands cyprès chauves au monde avec un âge estimé à 3 500 ans. Son sommet a été endommagé par un ouragan en 1925, et malheureusement, le sénateur a été détruit par un incendie en 2012,

9. Gran Abuelo

Gran Abuelo
source de la photo: Nouvel Atlas

Situé dans le parc national Alerce Costero au Chili le Gran Abuelo (en espagnol) «arrière-grand-père»), est le plus vieil arbre vivant d’Amérique du Sud.  Abuelo a été déterminé en 1993 après que les chercheurs ont utilisé un anneau de croissance pour vérifier son antiquité – ils ont estimé que l’arbre avait environ 3622 ans à l’époque.

8. Sarv-e Abarkuh

Sarv-e Abarkuh
source de la photo: Wikimedia Commons

La légende dit que cet arbre a été planté par Japhet, le troisième fils de la figure biblique Noé.

Situé en Iran on pense que le Sarv-e Abarkuh (cyprès d’Abarkuh) est l’un des plus vieux arbres du monde car son âge est estimé entre 4 000 et 5 000 ans.

7. If de Llangernyw

If de Llangernyw
source de la photo: geograph.org.uk

 L’if est situé dans le cimetière de l’église Saint-Digain dans le village de Llangernyw et l’église a un certificat signé par David Bellamy, botaniste anglais, auteur, diffuseur et défenseur de l’environnement, disant que l’arbre est âgé de 4000 à 5000 ans sur la base de milliers des années de documents écrits.

L’ âge de l’if de Llangernyw est estimé entre 4 000 et 5 000 ans. La datation des ifs est souvent difficile car le noyau a été perdu, avec plusieurs grandes ramifications poussant hors de la zone centrale de l’arbre.

6. Mathusalem

Methuselah
source de la photo: Wikimedia Commons

Situé en Californie, Mathusalem porte le nom de la plus ancienne figure biblique, Mathusalem, qui a vécu jusqu’à 969 ans.

Jusqu’en 2012, Methuselah était le plus vieil arbre connu au monde et son âge (4789 ans à l’époque) a été découvert en 1957 par Tom Harlan et Edmund Schulman. 

5. Prométhée

Prométhée
source de la photo: Wikimedia Commons
Prométhée
source de la photo: Wikimedia Commons

Situé dans un bosquet de plusieurs vieux arbres à Wheeler Park, Nevada.Avant sa disparition en 1964, Prométhée était l’un des arbres les plus anciens du monde et à l’époque, il était encore plus vieux que Methuselah.

En 1964, le géographe Donald R. Currey a obtenu la permission du Service des forêts de prélever un échantillon de base de l’arbre pour déterminer son âge, qu’il soupçonnait d’être plus de 4 000 ans.Malheureusement, l’extraction de Currey a mal tourné et l’arbre entier a été abattu. 

4.Pin Bristlecone

Pin Bristlecone du Grand Bassin sans nom
source de la photo: Wikipedia

Situé en Californie cet arbre qui existent depuis l’unification de basse et haute Egypte par Narmer en -3150 avant Jésus Christ, cet arbre est considéré comme le plus vieil arbre au monde. Il a été nommé le plus vieil arbre en 2012, battant le détenteur du record précédent de plus de 200 ans. L’arbre a été carotté par Edmund Schulman à la fin des années 1950, mais il n’a pas eu la chance de dater son échantillon avant son décès en 1958.

L’âge de l’arbre a ensuite été déterminé par Tom Harlan en 2010, qui travaillait sur les échantillons que Schulman avait collectés avant sa mort. Avant sa mort, Harlan a rapporté que l’arbre était toujours vivant et qu’il avait 5 062 ans.

3.old Tjikko

Vieux Tjikko

Situé dans la Montagne Fulufjället de la province de Dalarna en Suède,lorsque old Tjikko a été découvert pour la première fois en Suède en 2008 , il a été déclaré le plus vieil arbre du monde et a été estimé à environ 10 000 ans. 

Alors que Old Tjikko est devenu le «plus vieil arbre du monde», il n’est pas aussi vieux que le chêne Jurupa (plus de 13 000 ans), qui a été découvert un an plus tard. De plus, Tjikko n’a qu’un huitième de l’âge de Pando, 80 000 ans!

Comme ces deux arbres plus âgés, Old Tjikko est également un clone, mais ce n’est pas une colonie comme Pando et le chêne Jurupa – au lieu de cela, Old Tjikko régénère de nouveaux troncs, branches et racines au même endroit. Le système racinaire de Old Tjikko a environ 10 000 ans, tandis que ses troncs ne survivent généralement que pendant environ 600 ans avant qu’un nouvel arbre clone ne repousse à sa place.

2. Chêne Jurupa

Chêne Jurupa

 Situé dans les montagnes Jurupa en Californie, découvert seulement au cours de la dernière décennie, le chêne Jurupa a plus de 13 000 ans. Son âge a été estimé par les chercheurs en fonction de la taille de la colonie et de la croissance des tiges individuelles.

1.Pando

Pando

Situé dans le Fishlake National Forest en Utah, aux États Unis,le Pando est le plus vieil arbre du monde ainsi que l’un des plus anciens organismes vivants ,son un âge est estimé à plus de 80 000 ans,

 Alors que la plupart des autres arbres de cette liste sont des individus, Pando est une colonie clonale qui partage un système racinaire souterrain. Au-dessus du sol, Pando peut ressembler à un bosquet d’arbres individuels, mais ce sont tous des clones génétiquement identiques.

Catégories
Non classé

The 8 major pandemics that have marked history

Epidemics have existed since Antiquity; they did not wait for globalization or the coronavirus crisis to spread across the globe.

8.The plague of Athens (-430 to -426 BC)

The first documented pendemic in history, the plague of Athens is in fact probably due to thyphoid fever. Described by the historian Thucydides, himself affected by the disease, the disease manifests itself in intense fevers, diarrhea, rashes and conversions. Coming from Ethiopia, it then strikes Egypt and Libya, then arrives in Athens at the time of the siege of the city of Sparta, during the Peloponnesian War. It is estimated that a third of the city, or 200,000 inhabitants, will perish during this epidemic which will mark the beginning of the decline of Athens.

7. coronavirus (2019- Today)

The  Covid-19   pandemic is a pandemic of an emerging infectious disease, called the coronavirus disease or Covid-19, caused by the coronavirus SARS-CoV-2, which appeared in Wuhan on November 17, 2019, in Hubei province (in China) before spreading around the world. So far the virus has killed 1,186,609 people

6.The Antonine plague (165-166)

Here again, this pandemic is not due to the plague but to smallpox. It takes its name from the Antonine dynasty, from which the Emperor Marc-Aurèle came, who then reigned over the Roman Empire. The pandemic began at the end of the year 165 in Mesopotamia, during the war against the Parthians and reached Rome in less than a year. It is estimated to have caused 10 million deaths between 166 and 189, considerably weakening the Roman population. Smallpox, caused by a virus and characterized by reddish scabs, diarrhea and vomiting, was declared eradicated in 1980.

5.The Black Death (1347-1352)

Painting depicting the effects of the plague in Basel, Switzerland, in 1349.

After having raged in China, the black plague pandemic arrived in 1346 in Central Asia, among Mongolian troops besieging the port of Caffa, on the Black Sea, held by Genoese merchants. The disease, manifested by horrible buboes, then spread to North Africa then to Italy and France. It is estimated that this epidemic, also nicknamed « the great plague », made between 25 and 40 million dead in Europe.

The expansion of the Black Death pandemic in Europe in the 14th century.  © Wikipedia
The expansion of the Black Death pandemic in Europe in the 14th century. © Wikipedia 

4.Cholera (1826-1832)

The Duke of Orleans visiting the sick at Hôtel-Dieu during the cholera epidemic in 1832 / Alfred Johannot © Musée Carnavalet, Histoire de Paris
The Duke of Orleans visiting the sick at Hôtel-Dieu during the cholera epidemic in 1832 / Alfred Johannot © Musée Carnavalet, Histoire de Paris 

Endemic for several centuries in the Ganges delta in India,  cholera  reached Russia in 1830, then Poland and Berlin. He landed in France in March 1832 via the port of Calais, then arrived in Paris. Expressed by sudden diarrhea and vomiting,  cholera  (the cause of which is not known at the time, the bacteria  Vibrio cholerae ) causes   rapid dehydration , sometimes leading to death within a few hours

3.Asian influenza (1956-1957)

Linked to the H2N2 influenza virus, the 1956 influenza was the second most deadly influenza pandemic after that of 1918. It caused two to three million deaths worldwide.

2.The Spanish flu (1918-1919)

Emergency hospital in Kansas during the Spanish flu. Flickr ,  CC BY-NC-SA

Caused by a particularly virulent type A H1N1 virus, the  Spanish flu  is actually of Asian origin. It then arrived in the United States, then crossed the Atlantic by the soldiers who had come to help France. If it is qualified as the   Spanish flu , it is because the country, not subject to censorship and war, reports the first alarming news. When she died in April 1919, the results were appalling. The Spanish flu has killed 20 to 30 million people in Europe and up to 50 million globally, sparing virtually no region of the globe.

1. AIDS (1981- today)

the AIDS virus came to light in 1981, when the Atlanta Epidemiological Agency, in the United States, warned of unusual cases of pneumocystosis (a rare pneumonia present in immunosuppressed patients). At the height of the epidemic, in the 2000s, two million people died from the virus each year. 36.9 million patients are now living with HIV, but antiretroviral treatment has significantly reduced mortality.