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How did water get to the Moon?

 In October 2020, NASA announced with great fanfare that water had been discovered on the Moon. Neither one nor two, the press then seized on this information, distorting it at the same time.

Because NASA’s discoveries were still only preliminary. On the ground, space missions had to confirm the theories and other analyzes of the American space agency. Finally, after more than a year of waiting for the scientific community, it is finally, ironically, the Chinese competitor (CNSA) which with its Chang’e 5 probe has provided NASA with the precious answer.

How the water came to our nocturnal star ?

Now that the presence of water on the surface of the Moon is no longer lacking (or almost), the big question is to know how this water could end up there. According to CNSA scientists who deliver their conclusions in an article published in the journal Science Advances, water would have arrived on the Moon because of the solar wind.

In fact, hydrogen particles traveled to the heart of this stellar wind before coming to rest on the Moon. Once deposited on the surface of our satellite, the hydrogen met the oxygen there, thus forming molecules of water (H2O) and hydroxyl (OH). This idea had already been developed by NASA researchers in 2018 and 2020 when the American space agency found traces of water on the Moon.

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It’s official: China is now the richest country in the world

China has just overtaken the United States in the ranking of the richest countries on the planet, according to a report, now settling in first place.

China has just overtaken the United States in the ranking of the richest countries on the planet, according to a report, now settling in first place. The country’s value would have increased from $ 7 trillion in 2000 to over $ 120 trillion in 2020.

China goes ahead

The world has gotten much richer over the past two decades (net worth has tripled), but the distribution of wealth has shifted. Long behind the United States, China has just overtaken its main rival as the richest nation in the world. These are the two main lessons of a new report from the research arm of McKinsey & Co consultants, relayed by Bloomberg . For this work, the experts examined the national balance sheets of ten countries representing more than 60% of world income.

In detail, global net worth has grown from $ 156 trillion in 2000 to $ 514 trillion in 2020 , according to the report. China accounted for nearly a third of this development. The country’s wealth would thus have climbed from $ 7 trillion in 2000 to $ 120 trillion in 2020 . Its membership in the World Trade Organization in 2001 would obviously have accelerated this meteoric economic rise.

The United States, for its part, saw its net worth more than double over the period to reach $ 90 trillion in 2020. It should also be noted that in both the United States and China, more than two-thirds of wealth are owned by the richest 10% of households, and their share continues to increase.

According to the report, around 68% of that global net worth is stored in real estate. This sector includes machinery, infrastructure and equipment.

China widens the innovation gap

It should also be recalled that in 2019, China had overtaken the United States in the field of international patents with a thousand filings in advance. However, these applications filed through the WIPO Patent Cooperation Treaty (PCT) are one of the key indicators for measuring the various activities related to innovation.

In 2020, the Middle Kingdom retained its first place with 68,720 patents filed (+ 16% compared to 2019), ahead of the United States with its 59,230 filings (+ 3%). In other words, China remains in the lead, but also widens the gap on its direct competitor. Next come Japan, South Korea and Germany. 

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Why NASA is looking for candidates to simulate life on Mars

Do you dream of living on Mars? Then this mission is for you. NASA is looking for volunteers to simulate life on the Red Planet. The US Space Agency is already planning for a possible manned flight to Mars in a few decades. 

NASA has just launched a somewhat special call for applications: it is recruiting volunteers to simulate life on Mars. They will live for a year in a 150-square-meter prefab, housed in the US Space Agency’s center in Texas. The objective: to test the physical and psychological challenges that would be faced by astronauts on a mission on the Red Planet.

« Testing interactions between people left to their own devices »

How much water, carbon dioxide or food is needed for a trip to Mars? How much waste is produced? These are the main questions for NASA. For Michel Viso, specialist in astrobiology, joined by Europe 1, the American Space Agency needs « to test the interactions between people left on their own ».

To apply, there are still some conditions. You must be between 30 and 55 years old, American nationality and a degree in mathematics, physics or engineering. The four successful candidates will live independently for one year. They will only communicate with each other or with robots.

Measure needs to the nearest gram

Even if a real expedition to the red planet is not on the agenda for the moment, this simulation remains an important step. « It is necessary to start now to calculate a certain number of things under real operational conditions », assures Michel Viso. Before specifying: « if we are short of oxygen or short of water on Mars, there will be a real problem! »

Measuring requirements to the nearest gram also serves to minimize the cost of future missions. They require large financial investments. And especially time: space agencies do not plan human space flights to Mars before 2040.

Source : Europe 1

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Elon Musk is the richest man in the world again

Musk has a fortune of $ 194 billion

The big boss of Tesla and SpaceX has overtaken his rival Jeff Bezos because his stocks have appreciated in value.

Elon Musk is once again the richest person on the planet. The big boss of Tesla and SpaceX has overtaken his rival Jeff Bezos because his stocks have appreciated in value. According to the Bloomberg Billionaires Index, Musk has a fortune of $ 194 billion. That’s $ 100 million more than Bezos, the founder of Amazon whose wealth mainly consists of his stakes in the e-commerce giant. 

But the value of the shares fell at the end of last month because the quarterly report of the online trading group was disappointing … especially since the company was fined in Luxembourg.


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how was the earth formed?

The Earth formed when gravity attracted swirling gases and dust to become the third planet from the Sun,

A mixture of swirling gas and dust

About 4.5 billion years ago, the Solar System gradually adopted this arrangement that we know today. At this time, an interstellar molecular cloud collapsed, composing the Sun at its center. Around, a disk of gas and dust appeared.  » The Earth formed when gravity attracted swirling gases and dust to become the third planet from the Sun,  » observes  NASA on its website. Each planet in the Solar System has formed with a mixture of its own. But where does this dust come from which finally condensed to give our planet?

According to a study published at the end of 2019 in the journal Nature Astronomy and relayed on the Sciences et Avenir website, it would come in part from red giants, old stars which have already burned their hydrogen, as will be the case for our star within 4 to 5 billion years. To achieve this result, the researchers performed measurements of the abundance of palladium. This element, which is formed during the process of « slow neutron capture » taking place in the hearts of red giants, was remarkably present in our planet. The latter therefore inherited, in « its mixture », dust from one of these old stars. In general, stars disperse throughout their life or at the end, thanks to stellar winds, by exploding, or even by merging, chemical elements which are the building blocks of matter.

And the Moon in all of this?

According to the theory most accepted by the scientific community, that of the « giant impact », the Moon was created around 4.5 billion years ago when the primitive Earth was violently struck by a celestial body named Théia (mother of the Moon, Selene, in Greek mythology). The proto-planet was as massive as the planet Mars and the shock was tremendously violent. It vaporized Théia and a large part of the earth’s crust and mantle, poor in metals. Part of the cloud of vaporized rocks would have aggregated to Earth again, while the other part would have solidified not far away, giving rise to our satellite. 

Problem: the lunar subsoil is richer in metals than the portions of Earth excavated by Théia. This fact has long been known to scientists who are looking for an explanation. But a new study relayed by Sciences et Avenir in 2020indicates that there are still more metals than imagined which makes it even more difficult to interpret this shift while preserving the hypothesis of the giant impact. The study’s authors suggest that the collision between Theia and Terra was more violent and devastating than expected, and propelled deeper sections of the planet into orbit, including chunks of cores much richer in metals. Unless the collision happened much earlier when the Earth was still a ball covered in molten magma. Other theories exist to explain the formation of the Moon, some call for  a series of impacts  and others even believe that our satellite is  older than the Earth. ! Further investigations will still be necessary to settle this thorny debate.

With Sciences et Avenir

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Jeff Bezos is no longer the richest man in the world

Bernard Arnault in 2017. Image Jérémy Barande (CC BY-SA).

Cock-a-doodle Doo ! Jeff Bezos is no longer the richest man in the world, he was overtaken by Bernard Arnault. The latter is the majority shareholder and CEO of the LVMH group, which owns brands such as Louis Vuitton, Christian Dior, Tag Heuer , Sephora and Tiffany. LVMH shares have climbed more than 35% in 2021 and even 140% from a low in March 2020 at the start of the pandemic. Last Monday, the fortune of Bernard Arnault was estimated at 186.3 billion dollars, or 300 million more than that of the founder of Amazon.

MarketWatch explains that this rise is undoubtedly linked to the Covid-19 crisis, which had affected the luxury sector in 2020. Since the health situation has improved and the borders reopen, luxury is in great shape. No need to worry about LVMH anymore: the group announced 7.6 billion profit in the first half of 2021, four times more than for the same period in 2020 or 44% more than in the first half of 2019.

Source : macG

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Median wealth: who are really the richest in the world?

Which country has the highest median wealth? 

Like the median wage which separates a population into two halves with the same number of people: one earning less and the other earning more, median wealth follows the same principle. CEOWORLD magazine had fun ranking the countries in this way to find out in which countries the wealth was best shared. Not to be confused with average wealth, the criterion most often analyzed by experts and from which the Swiss often emerge the winners . But not this time. 

With a median wealth per adult of $ 238,070 , Australians are the richest people on the planet. Clearly, 50% of Australians have wealth greater than $250,000 , 50% have wealth below this threshold. Surprising Belgians follow in second place with a median wealth of 230,550 dollars (193,000 euros).

Behind Australia and Belgium, Hong Kong collects the bronze medal (145,000 euros). The United States, the world’s leading power, does not even appear in the top 20 because of the abysmal wealth gap between the inhabitants. 

1st – Australia / $ 238,070

2nd – Belgium / $ 230,550

3rd – Hong Kong / $ 173,770

4th – New Zealand / $ 171,620

5th – Denmark / 165,620 dollars

6th – Switzerland / 146,730 dollars

7th – Netherlands / $ 136,110

8th – France / $ 133,560

9th – United Kingdom / $ 131,520

10th- Canada / $125,690

source: Yahoo

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Demographic collapse: « the greatest risk for the future of civilization » according to Elon Musk

The CEO of Tesla is really worried about the demographic decline of the planet. While population growth has never been lower in the United States, the billionaire warns that the population collapse could really threaten the future of humanity, not only on Earth… but also on Mars!

The Wall Street Journal recently published an article on the decline of the American population : it turns out that as of July 1, 2020, the total population of the United States had only increased by 0.35%, the rate of lowest growth ever recorded across the Atlantic. And for good reason: in 2020, due to the COVID-19 pandemic , the number of deaths exceeded the number of births in half of the states.

Indeed, in the United States as in all developed countries, the fertility rate has been falling for several years; the economic uncertainty associated with the pandemic has only reinforced the trend. The subject appears to worry Elon Musk , who shared the Wall Street Journal article on his Twitter account . “ Population collapse is a much bigger problem than people realize, ” he tweeted a few days ago.

23 countries are expected to see their populations decline by more than 50% by 2100

According to INSEE , the French population increased by 0.3% in 2020, a weak growth which is again explained by the increase in deaths due to the pandemic. The fertility rate, which now stands at 1.84 children per woman, has been falling since 2015. According to the National Institute for Demographic Studies, we were 7 billion inhabitants on Earth in 2011, and will be 8 billion in 2022 or 2023. However, it is possible that this demographic explosion will end sooner than we think.

A study published in 2020 predicted a marked slowdown in population growth: after peaking at 9.7 billion people in 2064, the population is expected to decline to 8.8 billion in 2100. “ Continued global population growth during the century is no longer the most likely trajectory for the world’s population , ”said Dr Christopher Murray, director of the Institute for Health Metrics and Evaluation , which led the research. Also according to this study, in 2050, 151 countries should have a fertility rate below the generation replacement threshold; In addition, 23 countries, including Japan, Thailand and Spain, are expected to see their populations decline by more than 50% between 2017 and 2100.

While some climate specialists may be delighted with these forecasts, believing that a decline in the world population is one of the pivots that could make it possible to fight effectively against the climate crisis, demographers are, on the other hand, very worried about the economic future. the world – and in particular here, the United States: indeed, a decrease in the working-age population could end up plunging the country into a lasting economic crisis, implying a notable rise in inflation.

Elon Musk says he’s worried not only about the future of Earth, but Mars as well. The businessman fears that the decline of the world population will harm his project of « interplanetary conquest »:  » Mars has a great need for people, since the population is currently zero. Humans are the guardians of another life on Earth. Let’s bring life to Mars! « , He declared on his Twitter account. Musk sees this demographic decline as a major problem, adding that there is now a greater chance that our civilization will end up « in a groan » than in a « bang ».

Fewer young workers to innovate and support seniors

According to forecasts, by 2100, almost all countries (183 out of 195) will have a fertility rate below the generation replacement threshold (which is 2.1 births per woman). Fertility rates have already been falling all over the world since 1950; Europe, as well as Brazil and China, have already fallen below the replacement threshold.  » The only zone where fertility rates are maintained is the intertropical zone between the Sahel and the Zambezi « , specifies Hervé Le Bras , researcher at the National Institute of Demographic Studies.

The birth rate remains high in sub-Saharan Africa: there are more than seven children per woman in Niger. In these countries, in the past, infant mortality was compensated by a high birth rate; but today, the situation has changed: advances in medicine and the education of young girls are gradually reducing fertility. While the decline will not be as rapid in this part of the world as in the developed countries – with falling death rates and increasing numbers of women of childbearing age – it will eventually occur.

The main problem associated with the declining birth rate is the aging of the population. And there will be fewer and fewer young workers to take care of these elderly people financially … In addition, fewer workers are also less potential to innovate and develop new technologies that could improve our living conditions and save the planet.

In this context, several developed countries, in Europe, America and South-East Asia, will undoubtedly have to call on migrants to increase their working population – a solution which unfortunately causes a lot of societal tensions. Some countries, such as Russia, have already put in place birth policies based on financial support; Iran has adopted more drastic measures , restricting access to contraception and abortion.

Is humanity really threatened with extinction? For some researchers, the decline of the population remains one scenario among others, which is based on hypotheses of fertility, mortality and migratory phenomena which could vary over the years. For others, the trend is inevitable: “ We cannot continue like this in the next century, otherwise, at the end of the day, there will be no one on Earth. At one point or another, we will have to find a solution, ”warns Christopher Murray.

Source: Trust my Science

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Elon Musk and Jeff Bezos, the billionaires who watch the Earth burn

SpaceX boss Elon Musk January 19, 2020.

THE MOOD OF THE DAY – Canada and West Virginia go up in smoke, Germany and China drown. And during this time, the big bosses play cosmonauts and dream of colonies on Mars …

All over the planet, trapped humans, engulfed by sudden floods, fleeing from mega-fire, annihilated by « heat domes ». We barely have time to take an interest in the fate of the Germans drowned in their homes that we have to run in a flooded subway in China, and return to Canada, which we had left below 50 degrees to witness the destruction by the West Virginia forest fire. The media are doing their job. Nothing is spared us, and we « know ». Absolutely nothing that happens to us was unpredictable, the best scientists on the planet, climatologists and oceanographers, brought together in the IPCC thirty years ago by Ronald Reagan and Margaret Thatcher, two not particularly visionary leaders, have perfectly planned the steps past the disaster, and tell us the following.

Getting laid between the rich

No future on Earth? We do not care ! They are smart, have created « disruptive » companies thanks to which they amass billions, and scramble to send the ultra-rich of the planet into the air, with rocket planes that we had the first. seen for a fortnight. Behind these flights with an exciting carbon footprint, two visions as crazy as the other, that we struggle to prioritize: Jeff Bezos, boss of Amazon, wants to build space colonies where millions of people could live and especially work Aboveground ; Tesla boss Elon Musk believes the last humans will live on Mars. They’ve already sorted it out. What is it called?

# Telerama, Reteurs


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Jeff Bezos proposes to send polluting industries into space

Jeff Bezos seems to be very inspired by his little trip to space. Is it for the best? Here’s what he came up with on CBS This Morning  : Getting rid of the industries that pollute the Earth by sending them into space.

“What I’m about to tell you is going to sound fantastic to you, but it will happen. We can move all heavy industries and all polluting industries off Earth by managing them in space, ”said the former Amazon boss .

SOS Earth

Jeff Bezos has been criticized for going for a walk in space for fun , causing an astronomical carbon footprint (between 200 and 300 tons of carbon dioxide to launch a four-passenger rocket, the Guardian says ). However, the businessman seems to have heard of global warming. Only, he worries about it in his own way.

Where others are proposing to reduce overconsumption or even switch to renewable energies , anyone who has made a fortune with an e-commerce site does not particularly intend to reduce the production rate. “We must move heavy and polluting industries into space to preserve this sublime treasure that is the Earth. It’s going to take decades and decades, but you have to start somewhere and big things start with small steps. This is what this suborbital tourism mission allows us to do, it allows us to train, ”he added.

To go and pollute space instead of the Earth to preserve the environment, it was perhaps necessary to hover at 15,000 to think about it …