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How did water get to the Moon?

 In October 2020, NASA announced with great fanfare that water had been discovered on the Moon. Neither one nor two, the press then seized on this information, distorting it at the same time.

Because NASA’s discoveries were still only preliminary. On the ground, space missions had to confirm the theories and other analyzes of the American space agency. Finally, after more than a year of waiting for the scientific community, it is finally, ironically, the Chinese competitor (CNSA) which with its Chang’e 5 probe has provided NASA with the precious answer.

How the water came to our nocturnal star ?

Now that the presence of water on the surface of the Moon is no longer lacking (or almost), the big question is to know how this water could end up there. According to CNSA scientists who deliver their conclusions in an article published in the journal Science Advances, water would have arrived on the Moon because of the solar wind.

In fact, hydrogen particles traveled to the heart of this stellar wind before coming to rest on the Moon. Once deposited on the surface of our satellite, the hydrogen met the oxygen there, thus forming molecules of water (H2O) and hydroxyl (OH). This idea had already been developed by NASA researchers in 2018 and 2020 when the American space agency found traces of water on the Moon.

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It’s official: China is now the richest country in the world

China has just overtaken the United States in the ranking of the richest countries on the planet, according to a report, now settling in first place.

China has just overtaken the United States in the ranking of the richest countries on the planet, according to a report, now settling in first place. The country’s value would have increased from $ 7 trillion in 2000 to over $ 120 trillion in 2020.

China goes ahead

The world has gotten much richer over the past two decades (net worth has tripled), but the distribution of wealth has shifted. Long behind the United States, China has just overtaken its main rival as the richest nation in the world. These are the two main lessons of a new report from the research arm of McKinsey & Co consultants, relayed by Bloomberg . For this work, the experts examined the national balance sheets of ten countries representing more than 60% of world income.

In detail, global net worth has grown from $ 156 trillion in 2000 to $ 514 trillion in 2020 , according to the report. China accounted for nearly a third of this development. The country’s wealth would thus have climbed from $ 7 trillion in 2000 to $ 120 trillion in 2020 . Its membership in the World Trade Organization in 2001 would obviously have accelerated this meteoric economic rise.

The United States, for its part, saw its net worth more than double over the period to reach $ 90 trillion in 2020. It should also be noted that in both the United States and China, more than two-thirds of wealth are owned by the richest 10% of households, and their share continues to increase.

According to the report, around 68% of that global net worth is stored in real estate. This sector includes machinery, infrastructure and equipment.

China widens the innovation gap

It should also be recalled that in 2019, China had overtaken the United States in the field of international patents with a thousand filings in advance. However, these applications filed through the WIPO Patent Cooperation Treaty (PCT) are one of the key indicators for measuring the various activities related to innovation.

In 2020, the Middle Kingdom retained its first place with 68,720 patents filed (+ 16% compared to 2019), ahead of the United States with its 59,230 filings (+ 3%). In other words, China remains in the lead, but also widens the gap on its direct competitor. Next come Japan, South Korea and Germany. 

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China allows a third child: 3 questions to understand the stakes for the country

Faced with the challenge of the aging of its population, China is taking another step towards liberalizing its birth rate and authorizing a third child. But not sure that Chinese women are flocking to maternity hospitals.

The  China  is still  the most populous country in the world  with 1,412 billion

The  China  is still  the most populous country in the world  with 1,412 billion. But its population is only increasing by 0.53% per year. And above all, the thirty-five years of the one-child policy, from 1979-1980 to 2015, profoundly modified its age pyramid. The objective of improving the standard of living of the population, aimed at by its initiators, has been achieved. But now that the “only children” are of parentage age, and their parents of retirement age, there is a big problem.

1. What is the problem for China?

The ageing of the population. The economic cost of its support in relation to the working population is mathematically unbalanced by the one-child policy. Each single child, now an adult, bears the burden of supporting both parents on their shoulders alone.

2. What was the impact of the authorization to pass to two children in 2015?

Apart from a weak rebound just after the announcement, this first authorization had no effect. The number of births resumed its fall in 2016 to fall to twelve million in 2020 against 14.65 million in 2019. That year, the birth rate had already hit a low since the founding of Communist China in 1949.

4. Is this authorization likely to be a game-changer?

Not really if taken alone. The low enthusiasm for the second child in urban and affluent circles since 2015 has shown that the authorities’ green light alone will not have a magical effect. Additional announcements are expected on social support for childcare, maternity leave, the cost of their education, etc.